Monday, September 14, 2020

Glandular System

The system which comprises all glands of a body is called glandular system. When we see sour food a fluid is generated inside mouth, why? The salivary gland produce salivary juice. When dust enters into eye it starts tearing because of production of tear from tear gland.

Gland: those organs which produce enzyme or hormone are called glands. Glands are divided into two types exocrine and endocrine.

1. Exocrine gland: The ducted glands are called exocrine glands. The juice produced by exocrine glands are called enzymes. The enzyme produced by them is mixed to the blood which is helpful in digestion. Tear gland, sweat gland, salivary gland etc are example of exocrine glands.

2. Endocrine gland: The ductless gland that produce hormones are called endocrine glands. As hormones excite cells and other glands they are called chemical messengers. Imbalance of hormones in body causes imbalance in growth and developments.

Difference between exocrine and endocrine glands

Exocrine Gland

Endocrine Gland

1. It is ducted

1. It is ductless

2. It produces enzyme

2. It produces hormone

3. It sends enzyme to destination via duct

3. It sends hormones to blood directly

4. Enzyme is important for digestion, respiration and other life process

4. Hormone is important for growth and development

Pituitary Gland: The pituitary gland is a small pea-sized gland that plays a major role in regulating vital body functions and general wellbeing. It is referred to as the body's 'master gland' because it controls the activity of most other hormone-secreting glands. The hormones produced by this gland are called stimulating hormone and growth hormone. The major function of these hormones is physical and psychological development.

Thyroid Gland: The thyroid is a small, butterfly-shaped gland located at the base of our neck just below the Adam’s apple. It’s part of an intricate network of glands called the endocrine system. The endocrine system is responsible for coordinating many of our body’s activities. The thyroid gland manufactures hormones that regulate our body’s metabolism. The hormone produced by thyroid gland is called thyroxin which contains iodine necessary to our body. Lack of this hormone causes less sweating, physical as well as mental disability etc. If this hormone exceeds limit excess of sweating, increase of hunger, loss of weight like effects are seen.

Parathyroid gland: Parathyroid glands are four small glands of the endocrine system which regulate the calcium in our bodies. Parathyroid glands are located in the neck behind the thyroid where they continuously monitor and regulate blood calcium levels. The hormone produced by this gland is called parathermone or parathyroid hormone. It regulates calcium on blood and bones. Excess of this hormone causes tumor and kidney stone while lack of this causes lack of calcium in blood. Due to this muscles get contracted and the condition is called tetany.

Adrenal gland: The adrenal glands are small glands located on top of each kidney. They produce hormones that we can't live without, including sex hormones and cortisol. Cortisol helps us respond to stress and has many other important functions. Another hormone produced by adrenal gland is adrenalin. Access of adrenalin causes increase of blood pressure and lack of this causes decrease in blood pressure level, decrease of sugar level and dizziness.

Pancreas: The pancreas is an organ located in the abdomen. It plays an essential role in converting the food we eat into fuel for the body's cells. The pancreas has two main functions: an exocrine function that helps in digestion and an endocrine function that regulates blood sugar. So it is also called mixed gland or dual gland as it produces enzyme and hormone both. Pancreas produces Insulin and glucagon hormones. Insulin regulates sugar level in blood. Lack of insulin increases sugar level which is called diabetes.

Gonads: gonad, sex gland, or reproductive glandis a mixed gland that produces the gametes (sex cells) and sex hormones of an organism. In the female of the species the reproductive cells are the egg cells, and in the male the reproductive cells are the sperm. The male gonad, the testicle, produces sperm in the form of spermatozoa. The female gonad, the ovary, produces egg cells. Both of these gametes are haploid cells. 


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