Friday, August 28, 2020

Soap and Detergent

 Soap is a salt of higher fatty acid obtained from the reaction of oil or fat with alkali. Soap is a cleanser used in daily life for washing clothes and our body parts. The process of making soap from oil or fat by reaction with alkali is called saponification. In general soap is formed by following chemical reaction.

For bathing purpose high quality vegetable oils are used to make soap such as olive oil, coconut oil etc and for washing purpose animal fat is used. If sodium hydroxide(NaOH) is used with oil of fat solid soap or hard soap is formed. Instead of NaOH, if potassium hydroxide(KOH) is used for saponification liquid soap of soft soap is formed such as shampoo and saving cream. If soap is dissolved in alcohol and vaporized transparent soap is obtained.

Qualities of good soap

  • Bubbly- this give the soap ability to lather.
  • Cleansing - the ability of the soap to trap the dirt on the skin and wash it away.
  • Hardnes-the frimness of the soap bar.
  • Conditioning- the amount of moisture that is left on the skin.
  • Creamy- this measure the stability and creaminess of the soap lather.
The Detergent: Detergents are substance obtained from hydrocarbons used for cleansing clothes. They are more soluble than soaps.They are also called soapless soap as they clean clothes as soap but chemical nature is very different from soap. Sodium lauryl sulphate, alkyl benzene sulphonate and sodium pyrophosphate are example of detergent.


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